Humidity, organic waste from food such as food in the manger or in the areas of housing, presence of manure, air rich in gas and temperatures often exceeding the external environment. These are all characters which are the common denominator in health and hygiene management of areas predisposed to shelter for animals, whether of bovine, sheep, goats, swine or poultry and rabbits.
Naturally, for each particular species, it is possible to identify common critical points to all productive addresses and aspects that on the contrary, relate to risk factors typical of each species.
In all cases, it is essential and necessary to resort to periodically interventions of cleaning and sanitization, to treat the surfaces of productive locals to make them clean. Interventions can be divided in physical nature operations, which function is primarily the elimination-removal of macroscopic dirt, visible, and chemical nature operations, which aim is to eliminate or reduce to an acceptable level the microorganisms present.
The right tool for the best results
There are different application tools used for cleaning-disinfection with products of chemical origin equally characterized by a wide range of active ingredients. The key parameter for the success of the cleaning is the right choice of both these instruments.
Starting from the active principles, those available commercially are numerous. To mention some example, there are compounds containing chlorine, including Chloroisocyanurates, hypochlorites, chloramines and clorofosfati. This chemical element plays a strong oxidizing action with consequent immediate effect on the organic substances with which it comes in contact; for this characteristic it is an excellent instantaneous disinfectant but, besides being rapidly inactivated by organic substance, it has a non-negligible corrosive effects on steels and metals in general.
The iodine, strong oxidant, is usually employed in acidic solutions but does not have a residual activity required for the disinfection on farms, it stains and has a relatively high cost. Characterized by virucidal activity and non-corrosive for metals, are aldehydes as well as Quac, quaternary ammonium, which possess bactericidal and virucidal activity and frequently are used in combination with other active principles that complete the spectrum of activity.
The use of more active principles at the same time, allows to get instant and residual action active on gram-negative bacteria, gram positive bacteria, viruses and spores.
There are other parameters that must be considered in choosing the product, such as compatibility with the materials of the structures present in breeding, the exhalations that must be kept to a minimum and easily removed by aeration of the premises, the cost and effectiveness at low concentrations and ease distribution with suitable equipment.
In this regard, for the disinfection phase by chemical products, it is growing recently, interest in the use of the mist blower.
The low cost, the extreme practicality, ease of use, the reduced weight and size and the possibility, considered the handling of the equipment, to reach hard to reach corners and to delete some characteristic critical points of disinfection and sanitation, are undoubted success factors.
The factor that offers greater advantages for its application in the field of animal husbandry, is the ability to offer an effective treatment, guaranteed, with pulverization of the product into particles of 103 microns average which, thanks to their uniformity, penetrate into smaller spaces; although characterized by maximum range of 16 meters vertically, for a complete treatment to one hundred percent you get up to 13 meters, is therefore suitable for the needs of the sheds for shelter animals. Finally, in many cases, for widths of up to 8 meters, it is possible to to effect the treatment from the outside.
Lack of hygiene
If conducted properly, cleaning and sanitizing, allow you to delete an important and significant part of microorganisms that proliferate dangerously if not removed.
The igienico sanitary prophylaxis, the importance of which is greater the more intensive farming conditions are, must be considered preventive tools in the fight against infectious diseases and, therefore, have to be methodical and routinely.
In fact, not being able to act on the virulence of the etiologic agent, are to be considered opportune actions aimed at reducing the receptivity of the host, through the strengthening of the immune system and the environment to make it the less possible site of multiplication for pathogenic microorganisms.
The only cleaning, even scrupulous, does not guarantee the total removal of microbial contaminants.
When the bacteria colonize a surface, by concentrating with organic and inorganic molecules, constitute a ‘conditioning film’; at this stage, defined adsorption to the substrate, the interaction between bacterial cells and the surface are weak and their removal is easy.
Subsequently, there is the ‘adhesion of bacterial cells’ where are involved short-range forces that make the cell removal more difficult, requiring vigorous measures such as brushing and scraping. These bacteria grow, multiply using organic substances as nutrients and form microcolonies whose merger, in a more or less long time ranging from a few days to weeks, generates a continuous layer – biofilms – of cells over the entire surface. Bacterial cells in the structured biofilm become more resistant to antimicrobial treatment.
The result of a program of frequent cleaning and disinfection, is to prevent the formation of this ‘cover’ difficult to eliminate. Only by combining the cleaning and a proper disinfection, preferably carried out in two separate moments, you can avert the survival of the microbial cells adherent to surfaces and their proliferation and colonization of the production plant.
Cleaning the vehicles
Related to the management of hygiene in breeding, is also the sanitation of vehicles used for the transport of animals defined by specific provisions of law.
Immediately after unloading the animals, vehicles must first be cleaned and then washed and disinfected.
Even in this case, a precious ally is the mist sprayer through which it will be possible to complete the cleaning of the vehicle in its entirety, including the wheels, the mudguards and any ropes used for the transport of animals.